Freshwater has become one of the
scarcest commodities available, with
in excess of one billion people each
day unable to access clean water to
One of the key water pollutants is
species are problematic in that they
not only act as a nutrient and promote
algal growth but they are also a cell
toxicant, irritant and produce noxious
odours. As a result, there exists strict
legislation in many countries which
limits the discharge of ammonia
species and the associated ammonium
ion into surface waters.
Removal of ammonia is traditionally
performed by biological nutrient
removal (BNR). However, this process
requires a very stable environment
and is therefore very inflexible to
variations in temperature, effluent
concentration and flow rate.
Alternative technology solutions
should be environmentally friendly,
economically viable and sustainable.
These latter criteria indicate that
ammonia should be recovered with the
possibility of reuse.
In addition, limited waste products can
be generated and the demands on land
area should be minimised.
A physical process for ammonia
remediation is the optimum approach.
The NanoChem ion-exchange process
employs a physical
technology. The NanoChem
ion-exchange process is comparatively
simple, robust, compact and
inexpensive. Once the NanoChem ion
exchange media is saturated with
ammonium ions, the material can then
be regenerated to recover a
concentrated ammonium solution and
restore the NanoChem ion exchange
media to the fully active state.
When the NanoChem ion exchange
material is ready for disposal it has a
value as a fertilizer extender.
Incorporation of NanoChem Zeolite into
soil : reduces the loss of nitrogen
through excessive leaching to the
water table ; promotes absorption of
significant quantities of water thus
minimising the need for irrigation and
releases adsorbed ammonium ions on
the NanoChem Zeolite to plants as